Supra 316/4401
EN 1.4401, ASTM TYPE 316H / UNS S31609

General characteristics

Supra 316/4401 is a normal-carbon alternative to Supra 316/4404 that is widely used for various applications. Supra 316/4401 is an austenitic stainless steel that belongs to the standard CrNiMo stainless steel family and has normal carbon, nickel, and molybdenum content.


Due to their molybdenum content, the austenitic CrNiMo standard grades can be used in applications that demand increased corrosion resistance. Their well-balanced material properties make them suitable for the fabrication of many products.


Supra 316/4401 is available in many product forms and dimensions, often also from many stainless steel stockholders. It can be supplied with a wide range of functional and aesthetic surface finishes.

 

Typical applications

  • Heat exchangers
  • Flanges and valves

 

Product forms, available sizes and finishes

Flat

Product typeFinishesThicknessWidth
Black hot band1U2,50-12,70800-1800
Cold rolled coil2B, 2BB, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2G, 2H, 2J, 2K, 2M, 2R0,05-6,353-2070
Cold rolled sheet2B, 2BB, 2D, 2E, 2G, 2H, 2J, 2K, 2M, 2R0,25-6,3535-2070
Hot rolled coil, pickled1C, 1D, 1E, 1G, 1M, 1U1,41-12,7050-2070
Precision strip2H, 2R0,05-1,503-649
Quarto plate1D5,00-130,00400-3200

Long

Product typeFinishesThicknessWidth
Cast billet127,00-180,00127-180
Cast slab170,00-300,001000-1585
Forged billet round200,00-230,00200-230
Forged billet square200,00-230,00200-230
Hot rolled / Black bar round75,00-230,0075-230
Peeled / turned bar round70,00-170,0070-170
Rolled billet round75,00-200,0075-200
Rolled billet square75,00-200,0075-200
Wire rod (Rod coil) hex9,00-27,009-27
Wire rod (Rod coil) round5,00-27,005-27
Wire rod (Rod coil) square9,00-24,009-24
Chemical composition

The typical chemical composition for this grade is given in the table below, together with composition limits given for the product according to different standards. The required standard will be fully met as specified on the order.


The chemical composition is given as % by mass.

CMnCrNiMoNOther
Typical 0.0417.210.12.1
ASTM A240 ≤0.08≤2.0016.0-18.010.0-14.02.00-3.00≤0.10
ASTM A240 0.04-0.10≤2.0016.0-18.010.0-14.02.00-3.00
ASTM A666 ≤0.08≤2.0016.0-18.010.0-14.02.00-3.00≤0.10
EN 10028-7 ≤0.07≤2.0016.5-18.510.0-13.02.00-2.50≤0.10
EN 10088-2 ≤0.07≤2.016.5-18.510.0-13.02.0-2.5≤0.11
EN 10088-3 ≤0.07≤2.0016.5-18.510.0-13.02.0-2.5≤0.11
EN 10088-4 ≤0.07≤2.016.5-18.510.0-13.02.0-2.5≤0.11
EN 10088-4 -5MEK ≤0.07≤2.016.5-18.510.0-13.02.0-2.5≤0.11
IS 6911 ≤0.08≤2.0016.0-18.010.0-14.02.00-3.00≤0.10
IS 6911 0.04-0.10≤2.0016.0-18.010.0-14.02.00-3.00
Mechanical properties

The mechanical properties of the available products in the soft annealed condition at room temperature are given in the table below. Moderate strengths can be reached at elevated temperatures (~550 °C/1022 °F). Temperatures for excessive scaling are close to 850 °C/1562 °F. This grade, along with other austenitic corrosion-resistant steels, exhibits very high ductility and high elongation to fracture. It is not susceptible to brittle fracture in the solution annealed condition.

StandardRp0.2Rp1.0RmElongationImpact strengthRockwellHBHV
 MPaMPaMPa%J
Product type: Cold rolled coil and sheet
Typical (thickness 1 mm)30032563070
ASTM A240 ≥ 205 ≥ 515 ≤ 217
ASTM A240 ≥ 205 ≥ 515 ≤ 95HRB ≤ 217
EN 10028-7 ≥ 240 ≥ 270530-680 ≥ 40
EN 10088-2 ≥ 240 ≥ 270530-680 ≥ 40
EN 10088-4 ≥ 240 ≥ 270530-680 ≥ 40
IS 6911 ≥ 205 ≥ 515 ≤ 95HRB ≤ 217
IS 6911 ≥ 205 ≥ 515 ≤ 95HRB ≤ 217
Product type: Hot rolled coil and sheet
Typical (thickness 4 mm)30035060055170
ASTM A240 ≥ 205 ≥ 515 ≤ 217
ASTM A240 ≥ 205 ≥ 515 ≤ 217
EN 10028-7 ≥ 240 ≥ 270530-680 ≥ 40
EN 10088-2 ≥ 240 ≥ 270530-680 ≥ 40
EN 10088-4 ≥ 240 ≥ 270530-680 ≥ 40
IS 6911 ≥ 205 ≥ 515 ≤ 95HRB ≤ 217
IS 6911 ≥ 205 ≥ 515 ≤ 95HRB ≤ 217
Product type: Hot rolled quarto plate
Typical (thickness 15 mm)26030057055
ASTM A240 ≥ 205 ≥ 515 ≤ 95HRB ≤ 217
ASTM A240 ≥ 205 ≥ 515 ≤ 95HRB ≤ 217
EN 10028-7 ≥ 220 ≥ 260520-670 ≥ 45
EN 10088-2 ≥ 220 ≥ 260520-670 ≥ 45
EN 10088-4 ≥ 220 ≥ 260520-670 ≥ 45
EN 10088-4 -5MEK ≥ 209 ≥ 247494.0-636.5 ≥ 42.8
IS 6911 ≥ 205 ≥ 515 ≤ 95HRB ≤ 217
IS 6911 ≥ 205 ≥ 515 ≤ 95HRB ≤ 217
Product type: Wire rod
Typical19022050055

1)Elongation according to EN standard:
A80 for thickness below 3 mm.
A for thickness = 3 mm.
Elongation according to ASTM standard A2” or A50.

 

Corrosion resistance

Supra 316/4401 has excellent corrosion resistance in solutions of many halogen-free organic and inorganic compounds over a wide temperature and concentration range. It can withstand many organic and diluted mineral acids depending on the temperature and concentration of the solution. Supra 316/4401 may suffer from uniform corrosion in strong mineral acids and hot strong alkaline solutions. More detailed information on the corrosion properties of Supra 316/4401 can be found in Outokumpu’s Corrosion Tables published in the Outokumpu Corrosion Handbook and on www.outokumpu.com.


In aqueous solutions containing halogenides, e.g. chlorides or bromides, pitting and crevice corrosion may occur depending on halogenide concentration, temperature, pH-value, concentration of oxidizing compounds, or crevice geometry, if applicable. The presence of corrosion-inhibiting or accelerating compounds like transition metal ions or organic compounds may influence the corrosion behavior of Supra 316/4401.


Supra 316/4401 is prone to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking at temperatures over about 50 °C depending on the applied stress and the chloride concentration in the environment. Prior cold deformation of the structure under load increases the risk of stress corrosion cracking.

 

Supra 316/4401 can be used for indoor and outdoor applications in urban and moderately corrosive industrial environments. In environments where chloride contamination may be high, for instance in coastal areas, pitting and staining is possible. The best material performance is reached usually with the help of adequate design, correct post-weld treatment, and regular cleaning during use (if applicable).


For more information on corrosion resistance refer to the Outokumpu Corrosion Handbook or contact our corrosion experts.

Pitting corrosion resistanceCrevice corrosion resistance
PRECPTCCT
2420±2<0

PRE Pitting Resistant Equivalent calculated using the formula: PRE = %Cr + 3.3 x %Mo + 16 x %N
CPT Corrosion Pitting Temperature as measured in the Avesta Cell (ASTM G 150), in a 1M NaCl solution (35,000 ppm or mg/l chloride ions).
CCT Critical Crevice Corrosion Temperature is the critical crevice corrosion temperature which is obtained by laboratory tests according to ASTM G 48 Method F

 

For a more detailed description of their corrosion resistance properties in different environments see Outokumpu Corrosion Handbook.

Physical properties

Physical properties according to EN 10088 are shown below.

 

DensityModulus of elasticityThermal exp. at 100 °CThermal conductivityThermal capacityElectrical resistanceMagnetizable
kg/dm3GPa10-6/°CW/m°CJ/kg°CµΩm
8.020016.0155000.75No
Fabrication

Cold forming

Supra 316/4401 can be readily formed and fabricated by the full range of cold forming operations. It can be used in heading, drawing, and bending. Any cold forming operations will increase the strength and hardness of the material.

Hardening

Supra 316/4401 cannot be hardened by heat treatment. However, it can be hardened by cold forming.

Machining

This austenitic product is more difficult to machine than ordinary carbon steels but is still comparatively easy to machine compared to more highly alloyed stainless grades. Unless modified for improved machinability, they require higher cutting forces than carbon steels, show resistance to chip breaking, and a high tendency to built-up edge formation. The best machining results are obtained by using high-powered equipment, sharp tooling, and a rigid setup. Better machinability performance is given by Outokumpu Prodec products, which have been modified for improved machinability. Prodec is available as hot rolled plate and bar in 4401, 4404, 4436, and 4432 grades.

Welding

Supra 316/4401 has excellent weldability and is suitable for the full range of conventional welding methods (like MMA, MIG, MAG, TIG, SAW, LBW, or RSW), except gas welding.


Supra 316/4401 has about 50% higher thermal expansion and lower heat conductivity compared to carbon steels. This means that larger deformation and higher shrinkage stresses may result from welding.


In thin sections, autogenous welding may be used. In thicker sections, the low-carbon content Supra 316L/4404 is preferred. To ensure that the weld metal properties (e.g. strength, corrosion resistance) are equivalent to those of the parent metal, matching or slightly over-alloyed fillers should preferably be used. The recommended filler metal is 19 12 3L.


Post-weld heat treatment is generally not required. In special cases where there is high risk of stress corrosion cracking or fatigue, stress relief treatment may be considered.
In order to fully restore the corrosion resistance of the weld seam, the weld discoloration should be removed by pickling and passivation.

More detailed information concerning welding procedures can be obtained from the Outokumpu Welding Handbook, available from our sales offices.

 

Standards & approvals

The most commonly used international product standards are given in the table below.

 

StandardDesignation
ASTM A240/A240MTYPE 316H / UNS S31609; TYPE 316H / UNS S31609
ASTM A666TYPE 316H / UNS S31609
EN 10028-7, PED 2014/68/EU1.4401
EN 10088-21.4401
EN 10088-31.4401
EN 10088-41.4401
IS 6911, AMENDMENT NO. 2ISS 316; ISS 316H